When collaborating with a dedicated development team, most companies make a surprising discovery – there are quite a number of specialists working on the project. And while the focal area of developers is nuff said, such job titles as PMs,…
Software Development Models: Which One to Choose?
Everyone knows about the difficulties that IT professionals face when creating software. In general, any IT project involves the right approach to work. But at the same time, if this is not taken care of, then it will end exclusively in failure. Nobody wants an IT project to fail. And it can happen for a lot of reasons. For example, incorrect goal building or incorrect prioritization. Whatever happens, if a web developer made a mistake at the phase of analyzing and selecting a method for creating software, then in any case, everything will not go according to plan.
The methodology for creating operating system is indicated as SDLC – this is a sequence of actions, performing which one after another, you can get a whole project. In simple words, this is a scheme that helps in the development of digital software.
Choosing a software model, an IT specialist thereby influences various stages of work, such as testing, a reasonable selection of a strategic plan, and others.
Understanding this issue, programmers need to understand from the first seconds of taking responsibility for running an IT project what exactly is happening and why a finished digital product is needed as a result. As an example, there are testers who say that if there is no comprehension of the essence of the assignment, then the duty can be very interesting, as comprehension of the essence comes in the process of work. But there are testers who want to find out the full picture of everything that is happening in order to fast, accurately and efficiently conclude the draft.
Also, it is necessary to emphasize one important point: none of the existing software development models, which will be discussed below, is considered universal. This means one thing – the perfect type “for all occasions”, as the people say, does not exist. Any model is suitable for individual conditions, assignments, any type has pros and cons. That is why you should understand different software development models, be aware of their strengths and weaknesses.
Before considering all models, it is worth understanding their essence and purpose.
Why Software Development Models is Needed?
Each company offering software outsourcing services has an individual website and web application development life cycle, which is based on the following stages of product creation:
If we take all these stages together, we get a full-fledged development cycle of perfect and complete digital software – from the moment an order is received and clarification of customer requirements to the launch of a finished plan with round-the-clock technical support.
Towards to be able to personalize the way and approach of operating system development for each individual company, different software development models were designed, they were with distinctive characteristics, principles and time constraints. As some experts say, these are such methodologies.
At the present time, 50+ of them are studied, but the most popular and in demand are the TOP-8:
Although there are several other technologies that deserve respect, along with Umbrella of Agile, Scrum, Kanban and Extreme Programming.
After it became clear what are software models, additionally you have to learn the most crucial of them. Any of the technologies includes important options, tasks, components, consisting in the ability to optimize work processes, and in the end achieve an increase in the productivity of the entire team.
According to the statistics of the last year, the most often used in practice by web developers is DevOps. In fact, 36% of programmers supported this software. But the second stage belongs to Umbrella of Agile with a little margin – 32%. Also noteworthy is the Kanban methodology, which gained 13% of popularity.
In any case, it is necessary to consider each model separately, to understand what their pros and cons, characteristics are, while finding out the comparison of process models in software engineering.
8 Software Development Models
All successfully functioning web operating system development models on the modern market are divided into certain groups. The latter have differences in characteristics and organizational sides of the work procedure. Naturally, all technologies differ in the schemes by which they move towards success (there is a linear scheme and an interactive scheme). Additionally, they look at what type of relations has been established between the customer and the contractor. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the key TOP-8 modeling types for creating software.
No. 1. Waterfall
So, first number of the existing operating system development models that has been demonstrated in the circles of program developers. Another name is the linear model. It got it due to the fact that each stage must be fully concluded in order to move on to the next. Schematically, this resembles a waterfall, which has a specific start and end, and all actions go one after another, smoothly falling, like water without interruptions and modifications.
When choosing a “Waterfall” you are guided by:
If we talk about the advantages of “Waterfall”, then it is worth noting the strict procedure for solving the task and the timing of its implementation. Thanks to this, all tasks are easily divided between different performers and departments of the business unit. For customers, the advantage is the possibility to track all stages from the very launch of the draft to deployment and to its completion.
If we are talking about minuses of the project, which is built on the Waterfall, it is the difficulty of paying back to the previous stage and changing it as the work progresses.
No. 2. V-model (Validation and Verification model)
Of all the software development models, the V-shaped scheme seemed to be the most popular. The name itself speaks of the characteristics of the construction of the phases, each of which goes in a linear order, folding into a shape like a checkmark. This project is also called as a model of validation and verification, that is, a full recheck. Still, the “Waterfall” scheme was taken as the basis for its development. Naturally, one cannot do without a web testing procedure at any stage.
The essence of the technology is as follows: each work must be confirmed, fully completed, tested, and only after that the IT specialist can actually proceed to the following stage, which will be identical to the previous one.
Creation and testing process are running parallel.
A model is implemented when there are stable, clearly defined requirements, and the technology that is used in the work is absolutely stable and known to the development team. It is also suitable for short-term, simple projects. As for the pros, it is important to emphasize that it is easy for technology to carry out a managerial function through SDLC, but when it comes to cons, there is still no flexibility in this model.
No. 3. Incremental and Iterative Model
This development pattern is represented by the implementation of several requirements at the beginning, after which the product is improved through the use of iteration. The process is carried out slowly, sequentially, incremental.
Improvement also goes through stages exactly until the moment when all functions are completed and ready to be launched.
The difference from “Waterfall” is the ability to perform several iterations at once to obtain output data.
A huge plus of the method is the ability to detect problems in functions and design at the initial stage of product creation.
No. 4. Spiral Model
This type of software engineer models differs from many others in that it is based on two models at once – “Waterfall” and “Interactive”. But there are also differences from each of them. “Spiral” differs from “Waterfall” by the ability to control the workflow and a systematic approach, and from “Interactive” – by cyclicity.
The main emphasis in the development the working team puts on risk analysis.
This software model consists of four stages:
Comparing software development models, it can be noted that “Spiral” has such a plus as the possibility to add changes and new functions to the finished product during the phase of its use, when it becomes popular.
No. 5. The Rational Unified Process (RUP)
The Rational Unified Product method, or RUP, is known as a hybrid of the Interactive and Linear structures.
It includes 4 stages: beginning, creation, designing, and finally – conversion. In each step, except for the first, several iterations are applied. The remaining stages are performed with different levels of intensity, but in all four phases of the RUP.
After a detailed software development models comparison, this framework can be distinguished for its ability to create both stable and flexible solutions. Although it is believed that RUP is not as good in terms of speed of adaptation and work as the models of the pure Agile group – Scrum, Kanban, XP.
Delivery of the finished solution is provided to the client in an absolutely working condition.
Umbrella of Agile
By Agile we mean an alternative software development model that is not as rigid and voluminous as the traditional one. It was created in 2001 by four developers at once. Within two days, professionals developed a new model, and when the work was completed, they presented it to the world as the Agile Manifesto. Four core values and 12 principles of software development have been incorporated into this Manifesto.
In simple terms, Umbrella of Agile is a set of rules. Taken in a practical or physical sense, it is the ability to create change with a quick response to it. This approach allows developers to cope with uncertainty and sudden changes.
Among the different software models of Agile, three of the most popular of them can be named:
We will consider them further in more detail.
Other methodologies include test-driven development, continuous delivery, continuous integration, feature-driven development, dynamic system development, and others.
No. 6. Scrum
This technology is in demand in the modern world. The fact is that it is also a model of the well-known Agile. A distinctive feature of the project is the short duration of iterations. We are talking about two to four weeks, which is really short in time. Before technology is deployed, sprints are carefully analyzed and planned. Only after that, the IT specialist can implement some of the additional components and options. Prototype is used just the same to plan a new sprint. But after its actions are determined, it will by no means be possible to make changes.
The main difference between process models in software engineering is the transition from one stage to another. So, in the Scrum structure, after each sprint, additional options are added to help test and code in the subsequent sprint. This happens exactly until all sprints are completed, and all the necessary functions and elements are included in the project, so that it can be launched into work.
No. 7. Extreme Programming (XP)
Iteration when choosing this software model lasts from 1 to 2 weeks. Its important difference is that it allows you to make adjustments after the iteration has already been launched, but on the condition that the developers have not yet started operating with the product. Despite the flexibility of the structure, which is clearly its plus, it still entails a minus, since the delivery of software becomes difficult.
But there is good piece of news: you can deal with this problem by applying pair programming, building a product through testing, test automatization, uniterrupted integration, creating a simple design.
Analyzing all software development models, it should be said that XP is an agile methodology. Its core values are:
Each developer can edit the code at any stage, which is important to create a unified style, even if the code is created by five, ten or more people at once, as well as to maintain continuous integration, minimize rework, and for a common vision of the system.
No. 8. Kanban
There are several Agile models of software development in the IT field, one of which is the structure of this technology. The structure has such a characteristic as a pronounced iteration. Often sprints are short – the amount of time does not exceed 24 hours.
This technology is a web board that is equipped with sticky notes. It is used in order to efficiently present a web project with specific components. This approach has an advantage: the team can reduce a number of tasks to the most important of them, which are being developed in the current time.
This web board helps you conduct a deep analysis of the work and determine the remaining space for expanding the functions and improving the program. With the help of this technology, it is practicable to completely immerse yourself in the most important task and motivate employees, but at once it is not easy to cohere to deadlines, and even to determine the time frame.
When reviewing development models towards to choose the most appropriate for a particular project, it must be remembered that amendments can be made to the Kanban structure at any time. It can also be a problem in the absence of a strict time frame, provided that changes are made constantly.
How to Choose the SDLC Model That Will Suit you Best?
When choosing a particular technology to work on creating software, IT professionals should be aware that they should first try to do everything possible and impossible in order to approach the process as competently as possible.
After assuring that the stages have been passed, it is possible to start fulfilling your duties and full-fledged work on the draft.
What should be taken into account and what conclusions should be drawn?
Huge volume of information is known about software engineering modeling. This direction is the most prominent The IT industry is constantly evolving, that is why businesses have every need to create operating system. IT professionals, in turn, must offer customers the best options that exist in today’s market. The selected type for software designing is one of the key phases in the success and promotion of the commercial in the future.
What about design work, it is definitely impossible to do without a pre-compiled and prepared scheme. In line with this scheme that the group will have possibilities to fully perform the actions, as well as successfully fulfill their duties. In the end, a digital web product must be at a decent level and one that may withstand competitors and even surpass competitors to some extent.
Thus, at the present time, there are eight best methods, of which three are included in the Agile group – Scrum, Kanban and XP, as well as five are separate ones – “Waterfall”, “Iterative and Incremental”, “Spiral”, “V-shaped” and “RUP”.